Sources

These are the sources used throughout identiversity. The sources represent the most current, peer-reviewed research complemented by easier to read sources.

Bisexuality

Bouchard, K.N., Timmers, A.D., & Chivers, M.L. (2015). Gender-specificity of genital response and self-reported sexual arousal in women endorsing facets of bisexuality [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(2), 180-203. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2015.1022924

Clark, T. (2017). Invisability: Talking about bisexuality and aging [Fact sheet]. National Resource Center on LGBT Aging. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/INVISIBILITY%20bisexuality%20and%20aging%20NRC%20fact%20sheet%20final%206.2.20171.pdf

Copen, C.E., Chandra, A., & Febo-Vazquez, I. (2016, January 7). National health statistics report: Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among adults aged 18–44 in the United States: Data from the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth (Report No. 88). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2016/images/01/06/nhsr88.pdf

Danielle. (n.d.). I’m From Mt. Sinai, NY. I'm From Driftwood. http://imfromdriftwood.com/im-from-mt-sinai-ny/

Denizet-Lewis, B. (2014, March 23). The scientific quest to prove bisexuality exists. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/magazine/the-scientific-quest-to-prove-bisexuality-exists.html

Diamond, L. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Resulting from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 5-14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18194000/

Dotinga, R. (2016, January 8). More women report having same-sex relationships. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/more-women-report-same-sex-relationships

Gates, G.J. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/how-many-people-lgbt/

Gates, G. J. (2014). LGBT demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-demo-comp-pop-surveys/

Israel, T. (2010, October). Bisexuality and youth: Introduction to the special issue [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 10(4), 359-365. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2010.521038

Israel, T. (2015, July 7). Bisexuality and beyond: Tania Israel [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APPb__tpGHk

Johnston, T.R. (2016). Bisexual aging and cultural competency training: Responses to five common misconceptions [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 16(1), 99-111. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2015.1046629

The Kinsey Scale. (2019). Kinsey Institute. https://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/publications/kinsey-scale.php

The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. (2014). American Institute of Bisexuality. http://www.americaninstituteofbisexuality.org/

Rainbow Health Ontario. (2015, May 27). Bisexual communities and partners [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5pM3ejn8Ow

Rosenthal, A.M., Sylva, D., Safron, A., & Bailey, J. M. (2012). The male bisexuality debate revisited: Some bisexual men have bisexual arousal patterns. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 135-147. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-011-9881-7

Ward, B. W., Dahlhamer, J. M. Galinsky, A. M., & Joestl, S. S. (2014, July 15). National health statistics report: Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013 (Report No. 77). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr077.pdf

Body Parts

Ainsworth, C. (2015). Sex redefined: The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that. Nature, 518, 288-291. https://www.nature.com/news/polopoly_fs/1.16943!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/518288a.pdf

APA Task Force on Gender Identity, Gender Variance, and Intersex Conditions (2006). Answers to your questions about individuals with intersex conditions [Pamphlet]. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/intersex.pdf

Block, M. (2016, August 16). The sensitive question of intersex athletes. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetorch/2016/08/16/490236620/south-african-star-raises-sensitive-questions-about-intersex-athletes

Coleman, D. (2018, April 30). Sex, sport, and why track and field's new rules on intersex athletes are essential. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/30/sports/track-gender-rules.html

Dreger, A. (2018, April 27). Track's absurd new rules for women. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/27/opinion/caster-semenya-intersex-athletes.html

DSD research. (n.d.). Accord Alliance. http://www.accordalliance.org/resources/dsd-research/

Feder, E. & Karkazis, K. (2008). What’s in a name? The controversy over “Disorders of Sex Development”. The Hastings Center Report, 38(5), 33-36. http://med.stanford.edu/content/dam/sm/bioethics/documents/people/resumes/karkazispubs/Whatsinaname.pdf

Fogle, A. (2016, October 21). Falling in between: Inside the lives of intersex women. Good Housekeeping. http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/health/a40787/intersex-stories/

Gender Issues in Agriculture AGEX3003. (n.d.) Growing up intersex part 1 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9a1rXOpIuc

Ghcorayshi, A. (2017, July 26). A landmark lawsuit about an intersex baby’s genital surgery just settled for $440,000. BuzzFeedNews. https://www.buzzfeed.com/azeenghorayshi/intersex-surgery-lawsuit-settles?utm_term=.if24OoWmp#.ot31g2...

Greenfield, C. (2014, July 8). Should we ‘fix’ intersex children? Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/07/should-we-fix-intersex-children/373536/

Hartney, E. (2018, February 7). What does it mean to be intersex? Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-intersex-21881

Padawer, R. (2016, June 28). The humiliating practice of sex-testing female athletes. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/magazine/the-humiliating-practice-of-sex-testing-female-athletes....

Reardon, Sara. (2016). The spectrum of sex development: Eric Vilain and the intersex controversy. Nature, 533(7602), 160-163. https://www.nature.com/news/the-spectrum-of-sex-development-eric-vilain-and-the-intersex-controversy-1.19873

Ritchie, R., Reynard, J., & Lewis, T. (2008). Intersex and the Olympic Games. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 101(8), 395-399. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2500237/

Sleath, E. (2014, December 2). I am intersex: Shon Klose’s story. ABC. http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2014/12/01/4140196.htm

Topol, S. (2017, August). Sons and daughters: The village where girls turn into boys. Harper’s Weekly. https://harpers.org/archive/2017/08/sons-and-daug

Viewpoints on DSD care. (n.d.). Accord Alliance. http://www.accordalliance.org/resources/viewpoints-on-dsd-care/

World Athletics. (2018, April 26). IAAF introduces new eligibility regulations for female classification [Press release]. https://www.iaaf.org/news/press-release/eligibility-regulations-for-female-classifica

Gender

Bakker, J. (2018) Brain structure and function in gender dysphoria. Endocrine Abstracts, 56(S 30.3). https://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0056/ea0056s30.3.htm

Biswas, S. (2019, May 31). How Britain tried to 'erase' India's third gender. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-48442934

Bodkin, H. (2018, May 22). Transgender brain scans promised as study shows structural differences in people with gender dysphoria. Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/05/22/transgender-brain-scans-promised-study-shows-structural-differences/?WT.mc_id=tmg_share_fb

CBS News. (2017, March 23). Non-binary: The gender beyond he or she [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0ahBHJbyCg

Cocking, L. (2018, January 10). A brief history of Mexico’s third gender. The Omnivore. https://medium.com/the-omnivore/a-brief-history-of-mexicos-third-gender-7d80451419e6

Geiger, A.W., & Graf, N. (2019, September 5). About one-in-five U.S. adults know someone who goes by a gender-neutral pronoun. Pew Research Center Fact Tank. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/09/05/gender-neutral-pronouns/

Graf, N. (2019, December 18). About four-in-ten U.S. adults say forms should offer more than two gender options. Pew Research Center Fact Tank. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/12/18/gender-options-on-forms-or-online-profiles/

Havas Global Comms. (2017, September 18). The future is FeMale. Havas Group. https://download.havas.com/prosumer-reports/future-is-female/

Herman, J., Flores, A., Brown, T., Wilson, B., & Conron, K. (2017, January). Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/age-trans-individuals-us/

India court recognises transgender people as third gender. (2014, April 15) BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-27031180

Joel, D., Tarrasch, R., Berman, Z., Mukamel, M., & Ziv, E. (2013). Queering gender: Studying gender identity in ‘normative’ individuals. Psychology & Sexuality, 5(4), 291–321. http://people.socsci.tau.ac.il/mu/daphnajoel/files/2014/11/Joel_gender_identity_2013.pdf

Kaur, H. (2019, October 16). Why it matters what pronouns you use to refer to people and what to do if you slip up. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/16/us/preferred-gender-pronouns-explainer-trnd/index.html

Khaleeli, H. (2014, April 16). Hijra: India's third gender claims its place in law. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/apr/16/india-third-gender-claims-place-in-law

Leguizamon, M., & Griggs, B. (2018, February 6). More US teens are rejecting 'boy' or 'girl' gender identities, a study finds. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/06/health/teens-gender-nonconforming-study-trnd/index.html

Miller, C. (2015, October 30). Boys and girls, constrained by toys and costumes. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/31/upshot/boys-and-girls-constrained-by-toys-and-costumes.html?_r=1

Moskowitz, C. (2010, June 6). Kids learn gender stereotypes at home. Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/6621-kids-learn-gender-stereotypes-home.html

Nambiar, S. (2017, January 1). A brief history of Hijra, India’s third gender. Culture Trip. https://theculturetrip.com/asia/india/articles/a-brief-history-of-hijra-indias-third-gender/

Nunberg, G. (2019, August). Opinion: Even a grammar geezer like me can get used to gender neutral pronouns. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2019/08/06/744121321/even-a-grammar-geezer-like-me-can-get-used-to-gender-neutral-pronouns

A map of gender-diverse cultures. (2015, August 11). PBS. http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/content/two-spirits_map-html/

Richards, C., Boumanam, W.P., Sealb, L., Barker, M. J., Niederd, T.O., & T'Sjoene, G. (2016). Non-binary or genderqueer genders [Abstract]. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(1), 95-102. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26753630/

Rider, G.N., McMorris, B., Glower, A., Coleman, E., & Eisenberg, M. (2018). Health and care utilization of transgender and gender nonconforming youth: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 141(3). http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2018/02/01/peds.2017-1683

Saturday Night Live. (2017, September 30). Levi’s wokes [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=adPXDTvADD0

Scobey-Thal, J. (2014, June 30). Third gender: A short history. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2014/06/30/third-gender-a-short-history/

Silverman, H. (2019, August 1). 2 more states will offer a 3rd gender option on driver's licenses. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/01/health/washington-pennsylvania-gender-x-id/index.html

StoryCorps. (2014, December 17). Darnell Moore and Kiyan Williams [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/kiyan-williams-and-darnell-moore/

StoryCorps. (2016, June 3). StoryCorps 423: Sissy [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/podcast/storycorps-423-sissy/

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2012). Top health issues for LGBT populations information & resource kit. Rockville, MD: HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4684. https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA12-4684/SMA12-4684.pdf

Suddath, C. (2019, April 17). Boy scouts are just scouts now, and that’s making girl scouts mad. Bloomberg Businessweek. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-04-17/boy-scouts-are-just-scouts-now-and-that-s-making-girl-scouts-mad

Synowiec, O. (2018, November 26). The third gender of southern Mexico. BBC Travel. http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20181125-the-third-gender-of-southern-mexico

Trammell, K. (2019, September 18). Merriam-Webster adds the nonbinary pronoun 'they' to it's dictionary. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/17/us/merriam-webster-nonbinary-pronoun-they-trnd/index.html

Wren, C. (2017, September 21). Five insights about gender and brands. Branding Strategy Insider. https://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2017/09/five-insights-about-gender-and-brands.html

Yuan, O. (2020, January 6). Gender means more than you think it does. Ipsos. https://future.ipsos.com/gender/gender-means-more-than-you-think-it-does

LGBTQ+ Identities

Adam, M. (2017, March 26). What is a non-binary gender identity? [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8UgxG8e2TY

Ainsworth, C. (2015). Sex redefined: The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that. Nature, 518, 288-291. https://www.nature.com/news/polopoly_fs/1.16943!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/518288a.pdf

American Psychological Association. (2006). Answers to your questions about individuals with intersex conditions. http://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/intersex.aspx

Dowd, R. (2017, December 13). 27% of California adolescents say they are viewed as gender nonconforming, study finds. UCLA Newsroom. https://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/27-of-california-adolescents-are-gender-nonconforming-study-finds

Freeman, H. (2017, September 16). Let’s drop the gender stereotypes-we are all non-binary. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/sep/16/drop-gender-stereotypes-we-are-all-non-binary

Goldberg, S.K., Rothblum, E.D., Russell, S.T., & Meyer, I.H. (2020, January 20). Exploring the Q in LGBTQ. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/exploring-q-in-lgbtq/

Hammack, P. (2019, April 8). The future is non-binary, and teens are leading the way. Pacific Standard. https://psmag.com/ideas/gen-z-the-future-is-non-binary

Khan, F. (2015, September 1). I'm pansexual – here are the five biggest misconceptions about my sexuality. Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/im-pansexual-here-are-the-five-biggest-misconceptions-ab...

Pugachevsky, J. (2017, April 26). What does it mean to be pansexual? Cosmopolitan. http://www.cosmopolitan.com/sex-love/a9529384/pansexual-definition-meaning/

Schindler, M. (2016, August 1). LGBT 101: An introduction to the queer community [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DE7bKmOXY3w

The Advocate. (2018, January 25). What is intersectionality? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXJ4Dbdm1ks

The Ellen Show. (March 20, 2017). Ellen meets trailblazing actor Asia Kate Dillon [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f97aLkl_kWc

The Kinsey Scale. (2019). Kinsey Institute. https://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/publications/kinsey-scale.php

Watson, R., Wheldon, C., & Puhl, R. (2019). Evidence of diverse identities in a large national sample of sexual and gender minority adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 30(52), 431-442. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12488

Nature vs. Nurture

Ashley, K. B. (2013). The science on sexual orientation: A review of the recent literature. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 17(2), 175-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2013.767179

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Blanchard, R. (2001). Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior, 40(2), 105-114. https://doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.2001.1681

Bogaert, A.F. (2006). Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(28), 10771-10774. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511152103

Burton, N. (2015, September 18). When homosexuality stopped being a mental disorder. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201509/when-homosexuality-stopped-being-mental-disorder

Cartwright, M. (2015, August 3). Where’s the scientific research into how sexual orientation develops in women? Slate. http://www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2015/08/03/sexual_orientation_in_women_why_so_little_scientific_r...

Epigenomics fact sheet. (2016, April 1). National Human Genome Research Institute. https://www.genome.gov/27532724/epigenomics-fact-sheet/

Gosh, D. (2009, February 4). National Geographic explains the biology of homosexuality [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saO_RFWWVVA

Queen Mary, University of London. (2008, June 30). Homosexual behavior largely shaped by genetics and random environmental factors. Science Daily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080628205430.htm

Reardon, S. (2015, October 8). Epigenetic 'tags' linked to homosexuality in men. Nature. http://www.nature.com/news/epigenetic-tags-linked-to-homosexuality-in-men-1.18530

Rice, W.R., Friberg, U., & Gavrilets, S. (2012). Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87(4), 343-368. http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gavrila/papers/h2.pdf

Sanders, A.R., Martin, E.R., Beecham, G.W., Guo, S., Dawood, K., Rieger, G., Badner, J., Gershon, E.S., Krishnappa, R.S., Kolundzija, A.B., Duan, J., Gejman, P.J., & Bailey, J.M. (2015). Genome-wide scan demonstrates significant linkage for male sexual orientation. Psychological Medicine, 45(7), 1379-1388. doi:10.1007/s12119-014-9233-6

TEDx Talks. (2016, November 15). Homosexuality: It's about survival - not sex- James O’Keefe-TedxTallaght [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Khn_z9FPmU&vl=en

Wolchover, N. (2012, June 11). Why are there gay men? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/33987-gay-men.html

Wolchover, N. (2012, June 12). Why are there gay women? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/33992-gay-women.html

Older Adults

Abrahms, S. (n.d.). An ‘LGBT-Welcoming’ place to call home. AARP Livable Communities: Housing. https://www.aarp.org/livable-communities/housing/info-2016/age-friendly-LGBT-housing.html

Badgett, M. V. L., Durso, L., & Schneebaum, A. (2013, June). New patterns of poverty in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgb-patterns-of-poverty/

Brenoff, A. (2015, July 12). Why aging can be tougher on gays. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/5-problems-of-aging-while-gay_us_559fd6d0e4b01c2162a64e91

Browning, P. (2017, August 30). Older gays and lesbians face more health disparities, study says. KUOW. https://kuow.org/stories/older-gays-and-lesbians-face-more-health-disparities-study-says/

Choi, S. K., & Meyer, I.H. (2016, August). LGBT aging: A review of research findings, needs, and policy implications. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-aging/

Dugan, J.T. & Fabbre, V. (2018). To survive on this shore: Photographs and interviews with transgender and gender nonconforming older adults. https://www.tosurviveonthisshore.com/

Emlet, C. A. (2016, Summer). Social, economic, and health disparities among LGBT older adults. Generations, 40(2), 16-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373809/

Eskenazi, L., (2015, June 11). How to find care for LGBT seniors. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/lgbt-older-adults-emerging-community

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Bryan, A., Jen, S., Goldsen, J., Kim, H. J., Muraco, A. (2017, February). The unfolding of LGBT lives: Key events associated with health and well-being in later life. The Gerontological Society of America, 57(1), S15-S29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241757/

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Kim, H.J., Barkan, S., Muraco, A., & Hoy-Ellis C. P. (2011). The aging and health report: Disparities and resilience among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults. Institute for Mutigenerational Health. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/LGBT%20Aging%20and%20Health%20Report_final.pdf

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Kim, H. J., Shui, C., & Bryan, A. (2017). Chronic health conditions and key health indicators among lesbian, gay, and bisexual older US adults, 2013-2014. American Journal of Public Health, 107(8), 1332-1338. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508186/

Gorman, A. (2016, October 18). LGBTQ seniors face discrimination in long-term care. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/lgbtq-seniors-face-discrimination-long-term-care

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, December 21). Drafted in 1958: “My Eighteen Months Away Solidified Our Relationship” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38RoHv7LRvc

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, December 21). Family opens up at memorial for late partner [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0nuWjKbcsc

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, May 15). Living in LGBT-friendly senior housing: “We live like neighbors. And that’s a good thing” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=drO2HsFHqN

Maddux, S. (2011). Gen silent trailer [Video]. The Clowder Group. https://www.theclowdergroup.com/gensilent

Movement Advancement Project. (2017, May 24). Aging as LGBT: Two stories [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkPJxQorieo

National Senior Citizens Law Center, Lambda Legal, National Center for Lesbian Rights, National Center for Transgender Equality, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, & Services & Advocacy for GLBT Elders (SAGE). (2011, April). LGBT older adults in long-term care facilities: Stories from the field. The National Resource Center on LGBT Aging. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/NSCLC_LGBT_report.pdf

Naughton, J. (2018, August 20). A visual record of the joys, fears and hopes of older transgender people. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/20/lens/older-transgender-people.html

Wallace, S., Cochran, S., Durazo, E., & Ford, C. (2011, March). The health of aging lesbian, gay and bisexual adults in California. The UCLA Center of Health Policy Research. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3698220/

Wheeler, D. (2016, August 25). LGBT seniors are being pushed back into the closet. Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/08/lgbt-seniors/497324/

Whitfield, C. (2017, July 2). Black, gray and gay: The perils of aging LGBTQ people of color. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/black-gray-gay-perils-aging-lgbtq-people-color-n777791

Sexual Orientation

American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 67(1), 10–42. http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/features/amp-a0024659.pdf

Beaulieu-Prevost, D. & Fortin, M. (2015). The measurement of sexual orientation: Historical background and current practices. Sexologies 24(1), 29-34. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1158136014000656

Buzzfeed. (2017, July 27). How did you know you were gay? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwKm0XUQ6e0

Carrillo, H. & Hoffman, A. (2018). Straight with a pinch of bi: The construction of heterosexuality as an elastic category among adult US men. Sexualities, 21(1-2), 90-108. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1363460716678561

Copen, C.E., Chandra, A., & Febo-Vazquez, I. (2016). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among adults aged 18–44 in the United States: data from the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth. CDC: National Health Statistics Report, 88. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs//data/nhsr/nhsr088.pdf

Cornell University. (2017, December). What does the scholarly research say about the well-being of children with gay or lesbian parents? What We Know: The Public Policy Research Portal. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-the-scholarly-research-say-...

Cornell University. (2017, December). What does the scholarly research say about whether conversion therapy can alter sexual orientation without causing harm? What We Know: The Public Policy Research Portal. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-the-scholarly-research-say-...

Conroy, E. (2013, April 29). The 4th Sexuality - Asexuality [Video]. YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrXWqwuOqIQ

Diamond, L.M. (2008). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gates, G.J. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/how-many-people-lgbt/

Gates, G. J. (2013). LGBT Parenting in the US. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-parenting-us/

Gates, G. J. (2014). LGBT demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-demo-comp-pop-surveys/

Gates, G.J. (2017). In US, more adults identifying as LGBT. Gallup. http://news.gallup.com/poll/201731/lgbt-identification-rises.aspx

GLAAD. (n.d.). Glossary of terms- lesbian/ gay/ bisexual/queer.
Media Reference Guide. https://www.glaad.org/reference/lgbtq

The Kinsey Scale. (2019). Kinsey Institute. https://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/publications/kinsey-scale.php

The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. (2014). American Institute of Bisexuality. http://www.americaninstituteofbisexuality.org/thekleingrid

The Scene. (2017, March 29). I married my sorority sister [Video]. YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ASIpIY7RtE

Selterman, D. (2014, January 13). Debunking myths about sexual fluidity. Luvze. http://www.scienceofrelationships.com/home/2014/10/13/debunking-myths-about-sexual-fluidity.html

StoryCorps. (2015, March 29). Deidra Robinson & William Watford III [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/william-watford-iii-and-deidra-robinson-150329/

StoryCorps. (2012, June 22). Denny Meyer [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/denny-meyer/

StoryCorps. (2013, June 28). Samuel Taylor and Connie Casey [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/samuel-taylor-and-connie-casey/

Transgender People

A guide to transgender terms. (2015, June 3). BBC News Magazine. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-32979297

Bakker, J. (2018) Brain structure and function in gender dysphoria. Presented at the 20th European Congress of Endocrinology. Endocrine Abstracts, 56(S 30.3). https://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0056/ea0056s30.3.htm

Bodkin, H. (2018, May 22). Transgender brain scans promised as study shows structural differences in people with gender dysphoria. Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/05/22/transgender-brain-scans-promised-study-shows-structural-differences/?WT.mc_id=tmg_share_fb

Burke, S., Kreukels, B., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Veltman, D., Klink, D., & Bakker, J. (2016). Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 41(6), 395–404. https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.150147

Chokshi, N. (2017, February 23). One in every 137 teenagers would identify as transgender, report says. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/23/us/transgender-teenagers-how-many.html

Cornell University. (n.d.). What does the scholarly research say about the effect of gender transition on transgender well-being? What We Know: The Public Policy Portal. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-the-scholarly-research-say-...

Database of transgender homicides 2010-2018. (2019). Mic. https://unerased.mic.com

Eligon, J. (2017, August 6). Transgender African-Americans’ open wound: ‘We’re considered a joke’. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/06/us/black-transgender-lil-duval.html?searchResultPosition=80

Elijah/Esther. (2015, May 4). New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/storywall/transgender-today/stories/elijah-esther

Fitzsimons, T. (2018, September 17). Pediatric group recommends 'affirmative care' for transgender youth. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/pediatricians-group-recommends-affirmative-care-transgender-youth-n910451

Flores, A.R., Herman, J.L., Gates, G.J. & Brown, T.N.T. (2016) How many adults identify as transgender in the United States? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/trans-adults-united-states/

Garcia-Falgueras, A. & Swaab, D.F. (2008). A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 131(12), 3132-3146. https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/131/12/3132/295849/A-sex-difference-in-the-hypothalamic-uncin...

Garloch, K. (2017, February 6). ‘I want to be a girl all the time,’ child told parents. Now, mom’s story helps others. Charlotte Observer. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/living/health-family/karen-garloch/article131054374.html

Getahun, D., Nash R., Flanders W.D., Baird, T.C., Becerra-Culqui, T.A., Cromwell, L., Hunkeler, E., Lash, T.L., Millman, A., Quinn, V.P., Robinson, B., Roblin, D., Silverberg, M.J., Safer, J., Slovis, J., Tangpricha, V., & Goodman, M. (2018). Cross-sex hormones and acute cardiovascular events in transgender persons: A cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(4), 205–213. https://doi.org/10.7326/M17-2785

Hendricks, M.L. & Testa, R.J. (2012). A conceptual framework for clinical work with transgender and gender nonconforming clients: An adaptation of the Minority Stress Model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(5) 460-467. doi:10.1037/a0029597

Herdt, G. (1996). Third sex, third gender: Beyond sexual dimorphism in gender and history. Zone Books.

Herman, J.L., Flores, A.R., Brown, T.N.T., Wilson, B.D.M., & Conron, K.J. (2017). Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/age-trans-individuals-us/

Heylens, G., Verroken, C., De Cock, S., T’Sjoen, G., & De Cuypere, G. (2014). Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: A Prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. The Journal of Sexual Medicine., 11(1), 119–126. https://www.jsm.jsexmed.org/article/S1743-6095(15)30533-6/fulltext
Hoffman, J. (2016, June 30). Estimate of U.S. Transgender population doubles to 1.4 million adults. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/01/health/transgender-population.html?_r=0

Khaleeli, H. (2014, April 16). Hijra: India’s third gender claims its place in law. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/apr/16/india-third-gender-claims-place-in-law

Kincaid, A. (2016, August 23). Why I had to come out as a black trans woman. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/post_12733_b_11258546.html

National Geographic. (2015, October 20). Growing up transgender and Mormon | Short film showcase [Video]. YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8FZewEPAA

Nature Video. (2019, April 2). Understanding transition [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-B62IbbwYMU

Office for Victims of Crime. (2014, June). Responding to transgender victims of sexual assault. https://ovc.gov/pubs/forge/transgender_choices.html

Rafferty, J., AAP Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, AAP Committee on Adolescence, AAP Section on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Wellness. (2018, October). Ensuring comprehensive care and support for transgender and gender-diverse children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 142(4). https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/142/4/e20182162

Raypole, C. (2016, June 29). What does it mean for a transgender person to transition? Good Therapy. https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/what-does-it-mean-for-transgender-person-to-transition-0629167

Reardon, S. (2019, April 24). The largest study involving transgender people is providing long-sought insights about their health. Nature. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01237-z

Rojas, R. & Swales, V. (2019, September 27). 18 Transgender killings this year raise fears of an epidemic. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/27/us/transgender-women-deaths.html?smid=nytcore-ios-share

Snow, K. (2015, April 23). Jacob’s journey: Life as a transgender 5-year old. NBC News. http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/transgender-kids/jacob-s-journey-life-transgender-5-year-old-n34513...

StoryCorps. (2013, May 5). Alexis Martinez and Lesley Martinez Etherly [Audio Podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/alexis-martinez-and-lesley-martinez-etherly/

StoryCorps. (2016, May 1). Chris López and Gabe López [Audio Podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/chris-and-gabe-lopez-160501/

Stotzer, R.L. (2017). Data sources hinder our understanding of transgender murder. American Journal of Public Health, 107(9), 1362–1363. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5551619/

Wu, K.J. (2016, October 25). Between the (gender) lines: The science of transgender identity. Science in the News. http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2016/gender-lines-science-transgender-identity/

Youth

American Psychological Association. (2009). Toolbox to promote healthy LGBTQ youth. http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/programs/safe-supportive/training/toolbox.aspx

Boy Scouts of America (2017, January 30). BSA addresses gender identity [Press release]. https://www.scoutingnewsroom.org/press-releases/bsa-addresses-gender-identity/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, June 10). Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 65(6). https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2015/ss6506_updated.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). LGBT Youth. https://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/youth.htm

Marsh, M. (2009, March 30). Coming out pansexual to my dad [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1ZiZal2DXQ

Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012, July). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of service providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/serving-our-youth-lgbtq/

Frosch, D. (2008, August 2). Death of a transgender woman is called a hate crime. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/02/us/02murder.html

Gates, G. J. (2017, January 11). In U.S., more adults identifying as LGBT. Gallup. http://news.gallup.com/poll/201731/lgbt-identification-rises.aspx

Herman, J., Flores, A., Brown, T., et al. (2017, January). Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/age-trans-individuals-us/

Higgins, M. (2016, October 18). LBGT students are not safe at school. Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/10/school-is-still-not-safe-for-lgbt-students/504368/

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. National Academies Press, 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64808/

Kann, L., Olsen, E.O., McManus, T., et al. (2016, August). Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-related behaviors among students in grades 9–12 — United States and selected sites, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 65(SS-9), 1-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6509a1

Kates, J., Ranji, U., Beamesderfer, A., Salganicoff, A., & Dawson, L. (2018, May 3). Health and access to care and coverage for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in the U.S. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/health-and-access-to-care-and-coverage-for-lesbia...

Keuroghlian, A.S., Shtasel, D., & Bassuk, E. L. (2014). Out on the street: A public health and policy agenda for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are homeless. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(1), 66-72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4098056/

Left behind: LGBT homeless youth struggle to survive on the streets. (2014, August 2). NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/left-behind-lgbt-homeless-youth-struggle-survive-streets-n157506

Lewis, D. (2017, May 23). My family didn’t accept me. Ole Miss did. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/23/opinion/ole-miss-lgbt-students.html

Mallory, C., Brown T. N. T., & Conron, K. (2018, January). Conversion therapy and LGBT youth. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/conversion-therapy-and-lgbt-youth/

Muraco, J. A. & Russell, S.T. (2011). How school bullying impacts lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults. Frances McClelland Institute for Children, Youth, and Families ResearchLink, 4(1), 1-4. https://mcclellandinstitute.arizona.edu/sites/mcclellandinstitute.arizona.edu/files/ResearchLink_Vol.%204%20No.%201_Bullying.pdf

Musumeci, N. (2016, December 6). Bullied gay teen who committed suicide said peers wanted him dead. New York Post. https://nypost.com/2016/12/06/friend-says-teen-who-committed-suicide-was-bullied-for-being-gay/

Neal, D. (2017, April 13). 'Do you want a happy little girl or a dead little boy?': My choice as a mother. Vice: Broadly. https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/8x4qdk/do-you-want-a-happy-little-girl-or-a-dead-little-boy-my-choice-as-a-mother

Nolan, T. (2012, May 17). Family acceptance: Groundbreaking ‘best practice’ for reducing suicide risk for LGBT youth. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/theresa-nolan/family-acceptance-lgbt-youth-suicide-risk_b_1518197.html

Park, A. (2010, December 6). The protective effect of family acceptance for gay teens. Time. http://healthland.time.com/2010/12/06/the-protective-effect-of-family-acceptance-for-gay-teens

Russell, S., & Fish, J. (2016, March). Mental health in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 465-487. https://www.annualreviews.org/abs/doi/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093153

Seaton, J. (2017, March 29). Homeless rates for LGBT teens are alarming, but parents can make a difference. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/parenting/wp/2017/03/29/homeless-rates-for-lgbt-teens-are-alarming-heres-how-parents-can-change-that/?utm_term=.dd23636b070f

Sopelsa, B. (2020, March). Virginia becomes 20th state to ban conversion therapy for minors. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/virginia-becomes-20th-state-ban-conversion-therapy-minors-n1...

StoryCorps. (2012, January 13). Nathan Hoskins and Sally Evans [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/nathan-hoskins-and-sally-evans/

StoryCorps. (2014, June 18). A good man [Video]. https://storycorps.org/animation/a-good-man/

Victor, D. (2016, December 30). Cub Scouts kick out transgender boy in New Jersey. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/30/us/cub-scouts-transgender.html